Hellbender Publications 

Albanese, B., J. B. Jensen, and S. D. Unger. 2011. Occurrence of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in the Coosawattee River system (Mobile River Basin), Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 9(4):181-184.

Avery, A. 2005. Rachel Carson syndrome: jumping to pesticide conclusions in the global frog crisis. Hudson Institute.

Augustine, L., K. A. Terrell, C. Petzinger, B. Nissen, and M. Maslanka. 2016. Nutritional analysis of diet items available to captive and free-ranging hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Review​ 47(1):63-69. ​  

Barton, B. S. 1812. A memoir concerning an animal of the class of reptilia, and amphibia, which is known, in the United States, by the name of alligator and hell-bender. Private printing. Griggs & Dickinson, Printers. 26 pp.
Beane, J. 2012. Hellbent. Wildlife in North Carolina 19-22.
Beffa, D. A. 1976. Responses of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis to different oxygen concentrations, temperatures and photoperiod. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 37 pp.
Blais, D. P. 1996. Movement, home range, and other aspects of the biology of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis): a radio telemetry study. M. S. Thesis, St. Lawrence University, Canton, New York. 63 pp.
Bodinof, C. M. 2010. Translocation and conservation of hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Missouri. M. S. Thesis, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri. 152 pp.
Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, M. C. Duncan, J. Beringer, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2011. Historic occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis populations from Missouri. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 96:1-7.
Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, R. A. Gitzen, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Postrelease movements of captive-reared Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Herpetologica 68(2):160-173.
Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Habitat attributes associated with short-term settlement of Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) salamanders following translocation to the wild. Freshwater Biology 57:178-192.
Bodinof, C. M., J. T. Briggler, R. E. Junge, T. Mong, J. Beringer, M. D. Wanner, C. D. Schuette, J. Ettling, and J. J. Millspaugh. 2012. Survival and body condition of captive-reared juvenile Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) following translocation to the wild. Copeia 2012(1):150-159.
Bogo, J. 2009. Fighting the current. National Parks 83(2):22-23.
Bothner, R. C., and J. A. Gottlieb. 1991. A study of the New York state populations of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis(Daudin). Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science 17:41-54.
Boutilier, R. G., D. G. McDonald, and D. P. Toews. 1980. The effects of enforced activity on ventilation, circulation and blood acid-base balance in the aquatic gill-less urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis; a comparison with the semi-terrestrial anuran, Bufo marinus. Journal of Experimental Biology84:289–302.
Boutilier, R. G., and D. P. Toews. 1981a. Respiratory, circulatory and acid-base adjustments to hypercapnia in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin-breathing urodele, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respiration Physiology 46:177–192.
Boutilier, R. G., and D. P. Toews. 1981b. Respiratory properties of blood in a strictly aquatic and predominantly skin-breathing urodele,Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Respiration Physiology 46:161–176.
Branch, H. E. 1935. A laboratory manual of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis Daudin.Vantage Press, Wichita, 79 pp.
Bredehoeft, K. E. 2010. A re-evaluation of the Pleistocene hellbender, Cryptobranchus guildayi, and an overview ofCryptobranchus remains from caves in the Potomac River region. M. S. Thesis, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, Tennessee. 82 pp.
Briggler, J. T., and Y. Huang. 2006. Evaluation of health conditions, reproductive hormones, and mercury in adult hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri.
Briggler, J. T. 2007. Hellbender recovery actions in Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, Jefferson City, Missouri. Science Note 2(15).
Briggler, J., J. Utrup, C. Davidson, J. Humphries, J. Groves, T. Johnson, J. Ettling, M. Wanner, K. Traylor-Holzer, D. Reed, V. Lindgren, and O. Byers (eds.). 2007. Hellbender population and habitat viability assessment. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group, Apple Valley, Minnesota. 46 pp.
Browne, R. K., H. Li, Z. Wang, P. M. Hime, A. McMillan, M. Wu, R. Diaz, Z. Hongxing, D. McGinnity, and J. T. Briggler. 2012. The giant salamanders (Cryptobranchidae): part A. palaeontology, phylogeny, genetics, and morphology. Amphibian and Reptile Conservation 5(4):17-29.
Burgmeier, N. G. 2010. Population estimation, spatial ecology, and health status of eastern hellbenders in Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana. 76 pp.

Burgmeier, N. G., R. N. Williams, and S. Klueh-Mundy. 2016. One hell of a tale: a holistic model for hellbender conservation in Indiana. The Wildlife Professional​ 10(3): 32-35. 

Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2010. The bender board: a new design for the restraint and measurement of hellbenders. Herpetological Review 41(3):319-320.
Burgmeier, N. G., T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Spatial ecology of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana. Herpetologica 67(2):135-145.

Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, J. L. Meyer, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Health and habitat quality assessment for the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 47(4):836-848.
Burgmeier, N. G., S. D. Unger, T. M. Sutton, and R. N. Williams. 2011. Population status of eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Indiana. Journal of Herpetology 45(2):195-201.
Caliando, J. J., Jr. 1975. The effects of the pancreatic hormones, insulin and glucagon, on blood glucose and liver glycogen in the hellbender,Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 25 pp.
Canada, B., and A. F. Scott. 2003. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. Herpetological Review 34(3):255-256.
Chudyk, S., A.McMillan, and C. Lange. 2014.  Using the eastern hellbender salamander in a high school genetics and ecological conservation activity.The American Biology Teacher 76:338-344.
Coatney, C. E., Jr. 1982. Home range and nocturnal activity of the Ozark hellbender. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 55 pp.
Collins, J. T. 1981. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender) longevity. Herpetological Review 12(2):69.
Conservation Research Reports. 2008. Non-native fishes threatening hellbenders in Missouri. Iguana 15(3):177
Crane, A. L., and A. Mathis. 2011. Predator-recognition training: a conservation strategy to increase postrelease survival of hellbenders in head-starting programs. Zoo Biology 30:611-622.
Crowhurst, R. S., K. M. Faries, J. Collantes, J. T. Briggler, J. B. Koppelman, and L. S. Eggert. 2011. Genetic relationships of hellbenders in the Ozark highlands of Missouri and conservation implications for the Ozark subspecies (Cryptobranchus alleganiensisbishopi). Conservation Genetics 12:637-646.
Cundall, D, J. Lorenz-Elwood, and J. D. Groves. 1987. Asymmetric suction feeding in primitive salamanders.Experientia 43:1229-1231.
Davis, A. K., and W. A. Hopkins. 2012. Widespread trypanosome infections in a population of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) in Virginia, USA. Parasitology Research. 4 pp.
Davis, A.K., and T.M. Floyd. 2013. Evaluating levels of genotoxic stress in eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) using the erythrocyte micronucleus assay. Comparitive Clinical PathologyDOI 10.1007/s00580-013-1761-1.
Deban, S. M., and J. C. O’Reilly. 2005. The ontogeny of feeding kinematics in a giant salamander Cryptobranchus alleganiensis: does current function or phylogenetic relatedness predict the scaling patterns of movement? Zoology 108:155-167.
Dierenfeld, E. S., K. J. McGraw, K. Fritsche, J. T. Briggler, and J. Ettling. 2009. Nutrient composition of whole crayfish (Orconectes and Procambarusspecies) consumed by hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Review 40(3):324-330.
Dundee, H. A., and D. S. Dundee. 1965. Observations on the systematics and ecology of Cryptobranchus from the Ozark Plateaus of Missouri and Arkansas. Copeia 1965(3):369-370.

Ettling, J.A., M.D. Wanner, C.D. Schuette, S.L. Armstrong, A.S. Pedigo, and J.T. Briggler. 2013. Captive reproduction and husbandry of adult Ozark Hellbenders, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi. Herpetological Review 44:605-610.
Feist, S.M., J.T. Briggler, J.B. Koppelman, and L.S. Eggert. 2014. Within-river gene flow in the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) and implications for restorative release. Conserv Genet DOI 10.1007/s10592-014-0591-2.
Firschein, I. L. 1951. The range of Cryptobranchus bishopi and remarks on the distribution of the genus Cryptobranchus. American Midland Naturalist 45(2):455-459.
Fitch, F. W., Jr. 1947. A record Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia 1947(3):210.
Floyd, T.M., T.S.M. Stratmann, G.J. Brown, III, and C.S. Pfaff. 2013. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis. Terrestrial Movement. Herpetological Review 44:651.
Fobes, T. M. 1995. Habitat analysis of the Ozark hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, in Missouri. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 38 pp.

Foster, R. L., A. M. McMillan, A. R. Breisch, K. J. Roblee, and D. Schranz. 2008. Analysis and Comparison of Three Capture Methods for the Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis). Herpetological Review​​ 39(2):181-186.

Foster, R. L., A. M. McMillan, and K. J. Roblee. 2009. Population status of hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in the Allegheny River drainage of New York State. Journal of Herpetology 43(4):579-588.

Freake, M.J., and C.S. DePerno. 2017. Importance of demographic surveys and public lands for the conservation of eastern hellbenders ​Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis in the southeast USA. PLoS One 12(6): e0179153​.
Furniss, L. L. 2003. Conservation assessment for Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi Grobman). USDA Forest Service, Rolla, Missouri.
Gall, B. G. 2008. Predator-prey interactions between hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis and C.A. bishopi) and native and nonnative fishes. M.S. Thesis, Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 85 pp.
Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2010. Innate predator recognition and the problem of introduced trout. Ethology 116(2010):47-58.
Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2010. Response of native and introduced fishes to presumed antipredator secretions of Ozark hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Behaviour147:1769-1789.
Gall, B. G., and A. Mathis. 2011. Ontogenetic shift in response to amphibian alarm cues by banded sculpins (Cottus carolinae). Copeia 2011(1):5-8.

Gao, K., and N. H. Shubin. 2003. Earliest known crown-group salamanders. Nature 422:424-428.
Gates, J. E. 1983. The distribution and status of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Maryland: I. The distribution and status ofCryptobranchus alleganiensis in Maryland. II. Movement patterns of translocated Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in a Maryland stream. University of Maryland, Frostburg, Maryland.
Gates, J. E., C. H. Hocutt, and J. R. Stauffer, Jr. 1984. The status of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Maryland. University of Maryland, Frostburg, Maryland.
Gates, J. E., C. H. Hocutt, J. R. Stauffer, Jr., and G. J. Taylor. 1985. The distribution and status of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Maryland. Herp Review 16(1):17-18.

Gates, J. E., R. H. Stouffer, Jr., J. R. Stauffer, Jr., and C. H. Hocutt. 1985. Dispersal patterns of translocated Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in a Maryland stream. Journal of Herpetology 19(3):436-438.
Gonynor, J. L., M. J. Yabsley, and J. B. Jensen. 2011. A preliminary survey of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis exposure in hellbenders from a stream in Georgia, USA. Herpetological Review 42(1):58-59.
Gottlieb, J. A. 1991. A population study of the hellbender salamander, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in the Allegheny River drainage of New York State. M. S. Thesis. St. Bonaventure University, Olean, New York. 54 pp.
Graham, S. P., E. C. Soehren, G. R. Cline, C. M. Schmidt, W. B. Sutton, J. R. Rayburn, S. H. Stiles, and J. A. Stiles. 2011. Conservation status of hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in Alabama, USA. Herpetological Conservation and Biology 6(2):242-249.
Green, N. B. 1933. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in West Virginia. Proceedings of the West Virginia Academy of Science, Elkins, West Virginia. 7:28-30.
Greven, H., and G. Clemen. 2009. Early tooth transformation in the paedomorphic hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Daudin, 1803) (Amphibia: Urodela). Vertebrate Zoology 59(1):71-79.
Groves, J. D. 2012. eDNA & the search for hellbenders. Alive 12-13.
Groves, J. D., and L. A. Williams. 2011. In search of the hellbender in North Carolina. Connect 12-15.
Groves, J. D., and L. A. Williams. 2014. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis - cannibalism. Herpetological Review 45:108-109.
Groves, J. D., L. A. Willams, and S. P. Graham. 2015. Larval/Adult Association. Herpetological Review 46(1):70-71.
Guimond, R. W., and V. H. Hutchinson. 1973. Aquatic respiration: an unusual strategy in the hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis(Daudin). Science182(4118):1263-1265.
Harlan, R. A., and R. F. Wilkinson. 1981. The effects of progressive hypoxia and rocking activity on blood oxygen tension for hellbenders,Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Journal of Herpetology 15(4):383-387.
Harshbarger, J. C., and S. E. Trauth. 2002. Squamous cell carcinoma upgrade of the epidermal papilloma reported in an Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Pp. 43–48. In: R.G. McKinnell and D.L. Carlson (eds.). Proceeding of the Sixth International Symposium on the Pathology of Reptiles and Amphibians, Saint Paul, Minnesota.
Hartzell, S. M., A. L. Pitt, S. Davis, C. R. Pavlick, and J. J. Tavano. 2017. ​Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis ​(Eastern Hellbender). Temporal and Spatial Niche Partitioning. Herpetological Review 48(1)​.

Hasegawa, H., and Y. Ikeda. 2003. Helminths from the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Urodela: Cryptobranchidae), in Missouri, U.S.A.Comparative Parasitology 70(1):60–65.
Hecht-Kardasz, K. A., M. A. Nickerson, M. Freake, and P. Colclough. 2012. Population structure of the hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) in a Great Smoky Mountains stream. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 51(4):227-241.
Hiler, W. R., B. A. Wheeler, and S. E. Trauth. 2005. Abnormalities in the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi) in Arkansas: a comparison between two rivers with a historical perspective. Journal of Arkansas Academy of Science 59:88–94.
Hill, R. L. 2011. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (Eastern Hellbender) and Desmognathus quadramaculatus (Black-bellied Salamander). Predator/Prey. Herpetological Review 42(4)​: 580.

Hillis, R. E., and E. D. Bellis. 1971. Some aspects of the ecology of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in a Pennsylvania stream. Journal of Herpetology 5(3/4):121-126.
Hopkins, W. A., and S. E. DuRant. 2011. Innate immunity and stress physiology of eastern hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis) from two stream reaches with differing habitat quality. General and Comparative Endocrinology 174(2011):107-115.
Hopkins, W.A., W.E. Moser, D.W. Garst, D.J. Richardson, C.I. Hammond, and E.A Lazo-Wasem. 2014. Morphological and molecular characterization of a new species of leech (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida): Implications for the health of its imperiled amphibian host (Cryptobranchus allenganiensis).ZooKeys 378:83-101.
Horchler, D. C. 2010. Long-term growth and monitoring of the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis) in eastern West Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 48 pp.
Huang, C., Y. Xu, J.T. Briggler, M. McKee, P. Nam, and Y. Huang. 2010. Heavy metals, hematology, plasma chemistry, and parasites in adult hellbenders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 29(5):1132-1137.
Humphries, W. J., and T. K. Pauley. 2000. Seasonal changes in nocturnal activity of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in West Virginia.Journal of Herpetology 34(4):604-607.
Humphries, W. J., and T. K. Pauley. 2005. Life history of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in a West Virginia stream. American Midland Naturalist 154:135-142.
Humphries, W. J. 2007. Diurnal seasonal activity of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (hellbender) in North Carolina. Southeastern Naturalist 6(1):135-140.
Hutchison, V. H., G. Engbretson, and D. Turney. 1973. Thermal acclimation and tolerance in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Copeia1973(4):805-807.
Hutchison, V. H., and L. G. Hill. 1976. Thermal selection in the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, and the mudpuppy,Necturus maculosus.Herpetologica 32(3):327–331.

Ingersol, C. A. 1982. Seasonal reproductive changes in Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. M. S. Thesis, Southwest Missouri State University, Springfield, Missouri. 72 pp.
Ingersol, C. A., R. F. Wilkinson, C. L. Peterson, and R. H. Ingersol. 1991. Histology of the reproductive organs of Cryptobranchus alleganiensis(Caudata: Cryptobranchidae) in Missouri. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(1):60-66.
Irwin, K. 2008. Ozark hellbender long-term monitoring SWG project. Final Report. Arkansas Game and Fish Commission, Benton, Arkansas.
Jackson, T., and A. Boyntan. 1994. Hellbender Cryptobranchus alleganiensis. Division of Conservation Education, N. C. Wildlife Resources Commission.
Jerrett, D. P., and C. E. Mays. 1973. Comparative hematology of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis in Missouri. Copeia 1973(2):331–337.
Johnson, G. M., and D. J. Klemm. 1977. A new species of leech, Batracobdella cryptobranchii n. sp. (Annelida: Hirudinea), parasitic on the Ozark hellbender. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society 96(3):327–331.
Johnson, J. R., K. M. Faries, J. J. Rabenold, R. S. Crowhurst, J. T. Briggler, J. B. Koppelman, and L. S. Eggert. 2009. Polymorphic microsatellite loci for studies of the Ozark hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi). Conservation Genetics (Online First): DOI 10.1007/s10592-009-9819-z.
Johnson, T. R., and J. T. Briggler. 2004. The hellbender. Conservation Commission of the State of Missouri.
Keitzer, S. C. 2007. Habitat preferences of the eastern hellbender in West Virginia. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 64 pp.
Keitzer, S.C., T.K. Pauley, and C.L. Burcher. 2013. Stream characteristics associated with site occupancy by the eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in southern West Virginia. Northeastern Naturalist 20:666-677.
Kenison, E.K., Z.H. Olson, and R.N. Williams. 2016. A novel transport system for hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis). Herpetological Conservation and Biology 11(2):355-361.

Kern, W. H., Jr. 1984. The hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, in Indiana. M.S. Thesis, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, IN. 48 pp.
Kern, W. H., Jr. 1986. The range of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis, in Indiana. Indiana Academy of Science 95:520-521.

Lammers, B., D. Bemis, P. Colclough, and M. J. Souza. 2012. Prevalence of Salmonella sp. isolated from Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis in eastern Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 11(1):59-64.
Lawson, C. R. 2012. Land use and eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations in three Hiwassee River tributary watersheds. M.S. Thesis, Western Carolina University, Cullowhee, North Carolina. 55 pp.
Leas, W. 2007. Possible effects of climate change on some of Ohio’s endangered animals. Proceedings of the 2007 Environmental Studies Seminar at Xavier University pp. 24-26.
Lipps, G. and M. Sisson. 2008. Status assessment and conservation of the eastern hellbender. Annual Research Highlights pp. 51.
Lorenze Elwood, J. R., and D. Cundall. 1994. Morphology and behavior of the feeding apparatus in Cryptobranchus alleganiensis (Amphibia: Caudata). Journal of Morphology 220: 47-70.
Makowsky, R. 2004. Natural history and sexual dimorphism of the eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus a. alleganiensis. M.S. Thesis, Marshall University, Huntington, West Virginia. 69 pp.
Makowsky, R., L. A. Wilson, and T. K. Pauley. 2010. Sexual dimorphism in the eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis).Herpetological Conservation and Biology 5(1):44-48.
Mathis, A., and A. Crane. 2009. Saving a giant salamander. IRCF Reptiles and Amphibians 16(1):18-23.
May, T. W., M. J. Walther, W. G. Brumbaugh, J. T. Briggler, Y. Huang, and M. J. McKee. 2007. Concentration of elements in hellbender blood and fish fillets from the 2006 Missouri Department of Conservation monitoring programs. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2007–1229 18 pp.
Mayasich, J., D. Grandmaison, and C. Phillips. 2003. Conservation assessment for eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) Daudin. U.S. Forest Service Eastern Region, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Mayasich, J., D. Grandmaison, and C. Phillips. 2003. Eastern hellbender status assessment report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ft. Snelling, Minnesota, NRRI/TR-2003/09.
Merkle, D. A., S. I. Guttman, and M. A. Nickerson. 1977. Genetic uniformity throughout the range of the hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis.Copei1977(3):549-553.
Meszoely, C. 1966. North American fossil cryptobranchid salamanders. American Midland Naturalist 75(2):495-515.
Miller, B. T., and J. L. Miller. 1992. Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis (eastern hellbender). Herpetological Review 23(1):23.
Miller, B. T., and J. L. Miller. 2005. Prevalence of physical abnormalities in eastern hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis alleganiensis) populations of middle Tennessee. Southeastern Naturalist 4(3):513-520.  
Moalli, R., R. S. Meyers, G. R. Ultsch, and D. C. Jackson. 1981. Acid-base balance and temperature in a predominantly skin-breathing salamanderCryptobranchus alleganiensis.Respiration Physiology 43:1–11.
Moser, W. E., D. J. Richardson, B. A. Wheeler, K. J. Irwin, B. A. Daniels, S. E. Trauth, and D. J. Klemm. 2008. Placobdella cryptobranchii(Rhynchobdellida: Glossiphoniidae) on Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi (Ozark hellbender) in Arkansas and Missouri. Comparative Parasitology75(1):98-101.
Moser, W. E., J. T. Briggler, D. J. Richardson, C. D. Schuette, C. I. Hammond, W. A. Hopkins, and E. A. Lazo-Wasem. 2013. Redescription and molecular characterization of Placobdella cryptobranchii(Johnson & Klemm, 1977) (Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinida). ZooKeys 338:1-10.
Mullendore, N., A.S. Mase, K. Mulvaney, R. Perry-Hill, A. Reimer, L. Behbehani, R.N. Williams, and L.S. Prokopy. Conserving the eastern hellbender salamander. Human Dimensions of Wildlife. 19:166-178.
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