The Field Gas Flux Facility (FGFF)

A semi-permanent facility designed to conduct research on the tradeoffs between crop productivity and air quality as influenced by crop rotation/system and nutrient (especially N) management.  The facility is located at the Agronomy Center for Research and Education (West Lafayette, IN; 40° 29' 55.20" N; 86° 59' 53.23" W; elevation 215 m). The mean air temperature and annual precipitation at the site are 12°C and 950 mm, respectively (data from 1977 to 2006). 

The facility consists of a centrally-located equipment trailer between two fields each approximately 100 m wide and 350 m long.  The soil series across the entire Facility domain are Drummer silty clay loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Typic Endoaquoll) and Raub silt loam (fine-silty, mixed, superactive, mesic Aquic Argiudoll).

The mains powered trailer with high speed internet access providing environmental protection for an EL10 Edgeline computer (Hewlett Packard enterprise) and associated switches, modems, gas sampling system, controllers for a scanning open-path bistatic FTIR (MiDAC, Corp) and  closed-cell CO2 (LiCOR, Inc) and N2O (Picarro, Inc) analyzers.  Programs on the EL10 conduct basic quality assurance checks, data conversions, and communicates all data to campus.  

High-speed WiFi is also available around the facility.  Data from the facility is transmitted daily to high performance computing clusters on the Purdue University campus for backup and modeling.

Measurement configurations typically involve sequentially scanning the FTIR across seven paths within ½ hour with 3-min dwell times on each optical path (defined by FTIR and retroreflector array) and sequentially line-average sampling of 50m paths along the edges of the field utilizing a negative pressure sampling manifold system. The sampled air is analyzed for CO2 concentrations (Diffusive Infrared) and N2O concentrations (Ring-down laser). 

Atmospheric turbulence is measured at two heights using sonic anemometers (RM Young, Inc). Ancillary measurements include precipitation (Texas Equip., Inc), air temperature and humidity (Vaisala, Inc), atmospheric pressure (Setra Systems Inc.), and soil temperature and moisture at six locations (METER Inc.). 

Data logging and gas sampling control and assurance measurements (chamber pressure, flow, temperature and humidity) utilize Campbell Scientific equipment.

Analysis of the N2O emissions from the field utilize a backward Lagrangian Stochastic model.  CO2 emissions are currently not determined.

Publications and presentations based on this facility:

Grant, R.H.; C.T. Johnston; M.T. Boehm. 2011. Estimation of NH3 emissions immediately following land application of anhydrous ammonia using a scanning FTIR. Extended Abstract #508 in Proc., Ann. Mtg, Air Waste Management Assn., Raleigh, NC (CD)

Grant, R.H.; T. Vyn; C.T. Johnston; R. Omonode; C.-H. Lin; A. Pearson. 2015. Differences in N2O emissions determined by static soil chamber and micrometeorological methods.  Paper #164 in Proc., Ann. Mtg.Air Waste Management Assn., Raleigh, NC (CD)

Lin, C.-H.; Grant, R.H.; C.T. Johnston; A. Pearson. 2015. Integrated use a scanning open-path FTIR with multiple open-path and closed-path analyser to determine emissions from field-scale inorganic fertilizer treatments.  Paper #161 in Proc., Ann. Mtg., Air Waste Management Assn., Raleigh, NC. (CD) 

Grant, R.H.; C.-H. Lin; C.T. Johnston; A.M. Pearson. 2016. Emissions of ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) after application of nitrogen fertilizer. Proc., 3rd Conf. Atmos. Biogeosciences, American Meteorological Soc., Boston, MA, USA. (CD)

Grant, R.H.; C.T. Johnston; C.-H. Lin; T. Vyn.  2016. Evaluation of N2O emissions from multiple treatment plots using scanning open-path FTIR. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Soc.  of Agronomy, Crop Science Soc. of Amer. and Soil Science Soc. of Amer., Nov. 2016, Pheonix, AZ, USA.

Lin, C.-H.; C.T. Johnston; R.H. Grant. 2016. Application of Scanning Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP/ FT-IR) to Measure Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Concentrations Emitted from Agricultural Soils. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Soc.  of Agronomy, Crop Science Soc. of Amer. and Soil Science Soc. of Amer., Nov. 2016, Pheonix, AZ, USA.

Grant, R.H.; C.-H. Lin; C.T. Johnston. 2017. Continuous measurement of gaseous N2O emissions from plot-sized agricultural fields. Int. Symp. On Emissions of gas and dust from Livestock (EmiLi 2017), Saint Malo, France.

Lin, C.-H.; R.H Grant; C.T. Johnston; T.J. Vyn; R.A. Omonde.  2017. Integrated Use of the Inverse Dispersion Technique and the Chamber Method to Determine N2O and NH3 Emissions from Agricultural Soils. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Soc.  of Agronomy, Crop Science Soc. of Amer. and Soil Science Soc. of Amer., Nov. 2017, Tampa, FL, USA.

Lin, C.-H.; C.T. Johnston; R.H Grant. 2017. Accuracy and Sensitivity Analysis of Open Path FTIR Quantification of N2O and CO2 Emitted from Agricultural Fields. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Soc.  of Agronomy, Crop Science Soc. of Amer. and Soil Science Soc. of Amer., Nov. 2017, Tampa, FL, USA.

Grant, R.H.; S.D. Smith; S.L. Harrell; A. Younts; P.M. Smith.  2018. Windows-based Workflows on Linux-based Beowulf Clusters. PEARC18 Pittsburgh, PA, 5p. doi.org/10.1145/3219104.3219118

Grant, R.H.; C.-H. Lin; C.T. Johnston. 2018. Ammonia volatilization associated with anhydrous ammonia nitrogen applications to cropped land. Extended Abstract # 410765 in Proc., Ann. Mtg., Air Waste Management Assn., Hartford, CT. (CD)

Grant, R.H.; C.-H. Lin; C. Johnston; S.L. Hurrell; B. Zuelly; A.K. Maji; C.B. Smith. 2019. Application of edge computing on the near-continuous monitoring of NH3 and N2O emissions. Proc. of the 7th Greenhouse Gases in Animal Agriculture Conf., Foz do Iguacu, Parana, Brazil.

Grant, R.H.; C.-H. Lin; C. Johnston; S.L. Hurrell; B. Zuelly; A.K. Maji; C.B. Smith. 2019. Utilization of IoT and cloud-edge technologies for the continuous measurement of emissions from fertilized fields. Ann. Mtg. of the Amer. Soc.  of Agronomy, Crop Science Soc. of Amer. and Soil Science Soc. of Amer., Nov. 2019, San Antonio, TX, USA

Lin, C.-H.; C.T. Johnston; R.H Grant; A.J. Heber. 2019. Application of Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) to Measure Greenhouse Gas Concentrations from Agricultural Fields. Atmos. Meas. Tech. 12, 3403-3415.

Lin, C.-H.; C.T. Johnston; R.H Grant; A.J. Heber. 2020. Sources of error in Open Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) Measurements of N2O and CO2 emitted from agricultural fields. Atmos. Meas. Tech. 13, (in press).



Department of Agronomy, 915 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2053 USA, (765) 494-4773

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