Additional Resources

These resources have been provided by Purdue University faculty and staff members. Inclusion of these resources does not indicate endorsement.



National Academy of Science Report on Genetically Engineered Crops

  • This report indicates where there are uncertainties about the economic, agronomic, health, safety, or other impacts of GE crops and food, and makes recommendations to fill gaps in safety assessments, increase regulatory clarity, and improve innovations in and access to GE technology.


USDA Report: Genetically Engineered Crops in the United States 

  • This report examines issues related to three major stakeholders in agricultural biotechnology: genetically engineered seed suppliers and technology providers (biotech firms), farmers, and consumers.​

  • This website provides educational resources focused broadly on issues related to agriculture, crops, animals, foods and the technologies used to improve them.​




Genetically Engineered Foods and their Regulation: the Way Forward after Twenty Years of Adoption

  • This article by Regulatory Focus reviews the US history and impact of genetically engineered crops over two decades, explains the federal oversight of GE crops and discusses improvements to federal oversight to ensure the safety of GE crops and greater consumer confidence in GE foods. The article also discusses public attitudes toward GE foods and the issues surrounding the labeling of those foods, including the law requiring mandatory disclosure signed by President Obama on 29 July 2016.


Pest & Pesticides


Genetically Engineered Crops and Pesticide Use in U.S. Maize and Soybeans

  • The widespread adoption of genetically engineered crops has led to changes in pesticide use, but the nature and extent of these impacts remain open questions. This study looks at the issue with a unique, large, and representative sample of plot-level choices made by U.S. maize and soybean farmers from 1998 to 2011.


GMOs and Pesticides: Helpful or Harmful?


  • In this Harvard University blog post, the authors discuss how genetically modified organisms are often engineered to be more resistant to pesticides or produce pesticides themselves. They answer the question, how are GMOs changing the landscape of pesticide usage in our crop fields, and ultimately, the pesticide dosage in our dinners?


Compositional Differences in Soybeans on the Market: Glyphosate Accumulates in Roundup Ready GM Soybeans

  • This article describes the nutrient and elemental composition, including residues of herbicides and pesticides, of 31 soybean batches from Iowa, USA. The soy samples were grouped into three different categories: (i) genetically modified, glyphosate-tolerant soy (GM-soy); (ii) unmodified soy cultivated using a conventional ‘‘chemical’’ cultivation regime; and (iii) unmodified soy cultivated using an organic cultivation regime.


Navigating a Critical Juncture for Sustainable Weed Management

  • In this article, the authors discuss the risks to sustainable agriculture from the new resistant crops and present alternatives for research and policy.


Impacts of Genetically Engineered Crops on Pesticide Use in the U.S. – the First Sixteen years

  • This article presents a model that was developed to quantify by crop and year the impacts of six major transgenic pest-management traits on pesticide use in the U.S. over the 16-year period, 1996–2011: herbicide-resistant corn, soybeans, and cotton; Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn targeting the European corn borer; Bt corn for corn rootworms; and Bt cotton for Lepidopteron insects.




Biotechnology in Agriculture

  • The Dean of Oregon State University’s College of Agricultural Sciences charged a faculty committee to review and summarize key considerations related to genetically engineered (GE) organisms. Committee members drafted this series of white papers as a service to the public for the purpose of providing information from several scientific perspectives.


Harvard Kennedy School: Taking Root – Global Trends in Agricultural Biotechnology 

  • This paper reviews global​ trends in the application of agricultural biotechnology.


Agricultural Biotechnology: Before You Judge​

  • This publication offers readers the opportunity to judge for themselves the contributions that biotechnology may make to our food and agricultural system, and how you might participate in the development, regulation, adoption, and use of agricultural biotechnology.