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The Road from Farm to Table


he following questions and answers provide background and insight into how COVID-19 is impacting the food supply chain and animal welfare. The information is provided by Jayson Lusk, distinguished professor and head of the Department of Agricultural Economics, Purdue University, and Candace Croney, professor of animal behavior and well-being, and director of the Center for Animal Welfare Science, Purdue University.


If there’s a surplus at the farm, why is there a shortage in the grocery store?

Why are farmers dumping milk and plowing under vegetable crops while grocery store shelves are bare? This happens when the processing and distribution sectors that turn raw farm commodities into the food we eat are disrupted. With 54% of food spending occurring in restaurants and cafeterias, and that sector of the economy nearly shut down, there was a dramatic spike in demand for food in grocery stores — a demand the industry was not prepared to meet. Dairies, for example, may package small cartons of milk for schools that are now closed and not have the cash and equipment necessary to package milk in gallon jugs.

Why would farmers throw away food?

Despite the COVID-19 crisis, cows continued producing the same amount of milk. With restaurants and processors unable to take their usual quantities of agricultural products, farmers are left with few options. In some cases, products can be stored in warehouses or grain bins, but those aren’t options for perishable products. Sometimes farmers can donate to food banks. However, food banks don’t have the equipment or volunteers to take bulk quantities of raw milk, for example, and convert it to products we can consume. It’s also costly to harvest and transport food. The unfortunate result is that food is sometimes dumped, discarded or fed to livestock. No farmer takes this decision lightly. The recently passed CARES act includes some provisions for the government to buy excess production, which may provide some relief.

Why are meat packing plants shutting down?

Most of the livestock and poultry slaughter in the United States occurs in a small number of large meat packing plants, and then products are distributed to tens of thousands of grocery stores and restaurants around the country. For example, there are more than 60,000 pork producers in the U.S., but roughly 60% of all hogs are processed in just 15 large pork-packing plants. These packing plants are designed to efficiently and affordably process animals for food consumption, and each one has a large workforce. Despite precautionary measures, several packing plants were temporarily shut down when a number of workers were diagnosed with COVID-19. Employees work in refrigerated buildings in close quarters, where there is a high potential to spread the COVID-19 virus among workers. An important note: There is no evidence that COVID-19 is spread through food; our meat supply is safe.

What are the impacts of packing plant shutdowns for farmers and consumers?

U.S. meat processing capacity has been significantly diminished. Due to shutdowns and slowdowns related to COVID-19, packing plants are no longer able to take as many cattle and hogs, the price of livestock has plummeted, and farmers and ranchers are left without a destination for their animals.

Are we going to run out of food?

No. Agriculture is a seasonal business. The corn, wheat, soy and rice we are eating today was harvested and stored months ago. Food production is widely distributed across the United States. So, even if one area of the country is hard hit by the coronavirus, production in other parts of the country will offset losses. The peak demand observed in grocery stores in mid-March has largely subsided. While grocery sales initially increased 100% or more for many items, grocery buying is now only about 20% to 30% higher than this time last year. The challenges observed in the grocery store are not a result of insufficient food, but rather the difficulties in processing and distribution.

How much of our food comes from abroad?

Although the U.S. exports more agricultural products than it imports, there are some food products for which we rely on farmers in other countries. Overall, only 11% of the food we eat in the United States comes from abroad, but this figure varies widely based on the food.  Which foods might become scarce if the global flow of food subsides? Virtually all the coffee, cocoa and spices Americans consume come from abroad. Most of the fish and shellfish we consume is imported. And about half of fresh fruits, mainly bananas and grapes, are imported.  

Why euthanize the animals instead of just keeping them on farms? 

The decision to euthanize large numbers of animals is a devastating last resort for farmers, who typically seek out all feasible alternatives before making such a decision. Ultimately, conditions that are likely to cause animals significant welfare problems will dictate the decision to euthanize. With processing plants unable to operate at capacity and some already temporarily shut down, farmers will be worried about animals that are continuing to grow leading to overcrowding. Overcrowding will impact their ability to express normal behaviors and to rest comfortably, and may result in aggression and other undesirable or injurious behaviors. Maintaining hygiene, air quality and temperatures that keep animals comfortable will also become increasingly challenging as animals outgrow the spaces where they are kept. To avoid having animals suffer under these conditions, farmers will make the difficult decision to euthanize. 

Why not wait to see if things improve instead of euthanizing now?

As is true in many euthanasia decisions, taking a “wait and see” approach may put the welfare of animals in greater jeopardy. When mass euthanasia or depopulation appears necessary to address an emergency such as that caused by the current COVID-19 crisis, delays can result in animals experiencing significant discomfort, distress and suffering. Waiting too long to euthanize can result in fewer or poorer options for humanely ending animals’ lives and can take an additional toll on animal welfare as well as on farmers charged with this distressing task.

How will the animals be euthanized?

Euthanizing animals safely, humanely and in a timely manner is an enormous challenge.  Farmers will work with their veterinarians to use American Veterinary Medical Association-approved methods that result in the quickest, most humane method of euthanasia possible for the types and ages of animals on their premises.

For more information regarding animal welfare, visit Purdue’s Center for Animal Welfare website.

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